Household Battery Types

Rechargeable

Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd)

Nickel Cadmium (Ni-Cd) rechargeable batteries are slowly becoming replaced by newer, more efficient rechargeable batteries, such as Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) and Lithium Ion Li-ion. Nickel Cadmium (Ni-Cad) is good and wallet friendly choice if you need to replace disposable batteries in daily household devices such as remote controls, alarm clocks and toys.

Pros

  • More difficult to damage than other batteries.
  • Last longer, highcharge/discharge cycles, can withstand 500-1000 cycles with minimum capacity loss with up to 2500 charges.
  • High current charging does little to no damage to the battery allowing  for fast charging (15 minutes)
  • Have long shelf life.
  • Can be stored discharged.
  • Provide very high currents, suitable for high-drain application such as power tools cameras.
  • Resistant to cold weather -22° to 140°F (-30° to 60°C)

Cons

  • Out of date compared to newer rechargeable batteries.
  • Low capacity  – AA = 600-1000 mAh
  • They won’t last very long for high draining electronics (cameras, flashlights)
  • They have as low power-to-weight ratio compared to NiMH or Li-Ion
  • They have a high self-discharge rate (20% or higher per month) 15-20% the first 24 hours, additional 7-10% per month
  • Very toxic, requires proper disposal/recycling.
  • Memory Loss over time.

Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH)

Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries are becoming the favorite among rechargeable batteries, as they can contain 2-3 times the capacity of Nickel Cadmium rechargeable batteries, can supply high draining electronics such as digital cameras, and are much more effective than mostly any disposable battery.

Pros

  • They are more efficient thanAlkaline and Ni-Cd batteries.
  • The LSD (Low Self Discharge) versions of NiMH have the lowest self discharge of all rechargeable batteries.
  • The average NiMH battery has about 2-3 times the capacity of NiCa/NiCd. AA = 1200-2700 mAh LSD: 2000 mAh
  • Due to the larger capacity they last much longer in high draining electronics than NiCa/NiCd or disposable batteries.
  • Self-Discharge – LSD NiMH: Retain 75% charge for 1-3 years, depending on brand.
  • Recharge Cycles: Normal: 100-1000 LSD: 500-1500
  • Not toxic, like NiCd’s
  • No memory loss, can be “refreshed” or reconditioned.

Cons

  • The normal NiMH batteries have a High-Self-Discharge. They lose about 15-30% of their charge every month.
  • Perform poorly in freezing temperatures, capacity down to 90%, can not draw high current at low temperatures.
  • Operating temperature range: -4F°-122° F (0°-50° C)
  • They lose some of their capacity permanently if not used for long periods of time.
  • NiMH’s are rated at 1.2v initial voltage, flashlights may appear dimmer, but will last longer than Alkaline 1.5v.

Lithium-ion (Li-ion)

Lithium Ion (Li-ion) rechargeable batteries are the newest rechargeable batteries on the market, and are becoming one of the most popular rechargeable batteries. Due to their high capacity they can supply greater lasting amount of power for high draining electronics.

Pros

  • They are perfectly suited for high energy draining electronics. (Smartphones,Cameras, RC toys)
  • No memory loss.
  • They have Low-Discharge rate of 5% of their charge every month.
  • Most energy capacity of rechargeable batteries.

Cons

  • They lose capacity permanently over an extended period.
  • They are the least durable of batteries. Catch fire when punctured or mishandled.
  • Commonly available in 3.7v, fewer compatible devices.
  • The most expensive of rechargeable batteries.
  • Require special charger and discharge circuit.

Non-Rechargeable

Carbon Zinc
Alkaline
Lithium
Silver Oxide
Zinc Air